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Cooling Towers
Counter Flow • Cross Flow

A cooling tower is a heat rejection device that transfers waste heat from a process to the atmosphere though the cooling of the recirculated water. The type of heat rejection is commonly termed "evaporative cooling" in that the process heat energy is absorbed by the evaporation of a small portion of the circulated flow there by reducing the temperature of remaining water for reuse. Cooling towers can commonly provide lower water temperatures than are attainable with "air cooled" or "dry" heat rejection devices.

 
 
Cross Flow Cooling Tower
 

Applications: HVAC, Refrigeration, Diesel Engine, Natural Gas, Electric Motor, PLastic Injection.

Details: Click Here

 
 
Counter Flow Cooling Tower
 

Applications: HVAC, Refrigeration, Diesel Engine, Natural Gas, Electric Motor, PLastic Injection.

Details: Click Here

 
 

Common Cooling Tower applications include: Water Cooled Air Conditioning systems, Water Source Heat Pumps, Injection Molding machines, Anodizing processes, Industrial/Hydraulic Oil Coolers, Die Casting and Water Cooled Air Compressors.

The generic term "cooling tower" is used to describe both direct (open circuit) and indirect (closed circuit) heat rejection equipment. While most think of a "cooling tower" as an open direct contact heat rejection device, the indirect cooling tower, sometimes referred to as a "closed circuit cooling tower" is nonetheless also a cooling tower.

Direct or Open Circuit Cooling Tower warm water is distributed over a labyrinth-like packing or "fill". The fill pack consists of multiple sheets of closely space vertical film. The water descends by gravity through the fill pack and is in direct contact with the inlet air. The fill provides an expanded surface area which optimizes the air-water interface allowing the maximum amount evaporation to take place. The cooled water is then collected in a cold water basin, and returned to the cooling loop to repeat the process. The heated and moisture laden air leaving the fill pack s discharged to the atmosphere which completes the heat transfer cycle. It is important that the tower discharge is isolated from the fresh air inlets to prevent the saturated vapor from being drawn back into the fresh air inlet.

In an Indirect, or Closed Circuit Cooling Tower there is no direct contact between the process cooling fluid (usually water or a glycol mixture)and the air. Unlike the open cooling tower, the indirect cooling tower has two separate fluid circuits. The closed or system loop houses the primary cooling fluid. This loop picks up heat from the process load and rejects it through the tube bundle or heat exchanger to the open loop of the system. The open loop water them passes over the tub bundle or over a traditional cooling tower fill pack. Contact with the inlet air will complete the evaporation phase of the heat exchange process.

Air Delivery System and the Airflow Pattern:

There are two basic air delivery systems. In a Natural Draft tower, air flow through the fill pack is created as heat from the hot inlet water rises off of the fill creating a draft effect which draws in cooler air through the tower inlets In an Induced Draft tower, a fan is used to promote air flow. Induced draft tower can use either bottom or side mounted blower which forces air through the fill pack or a top mounted fan which draws air through the fill.

There are two basic airflow patterns. In a Cross Flow cooling tower, the hot water flows by gravity down through the fill pack and the air travels at near a right angle across the direction of water flow. In a counter flow cooling tower the water flows by gravity down through the fill pack, while the air flows vertically up through the fill pack in the opposite or counter direction to the water flow.

In most tower applications, fresh "Make-up Water" must be added into the system to replace the evaporation loss. Additional make-up will be needed as part of the water treatment process and to account of drift or splash from that may occur during operation.

 
Typical Applications
Industrial
Food and Beverage
HVAC
Air Processing / Compressor Cooling
 
Petrochemical: Processing & Refining
 
Pharmaceuticals
Power Generation
Metals and Mining
Refrigeration
Pulp and Paper

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